“It’s all relative!”
—Rachel (Friends, Season 4 Episode 12)
“There is no past or future. Using tenses to divide time is like making chalk marks on water.”
― Janet Frame
Field linguists Benjawan and Lee recently shocked the linguistic world with an astonishing discovery.
“We were in Myanmar to study some of the local dialects, when we received a mysterious call. Apparently, a farmer from the Hpaknam area had found something strange that we needed to look at”, Benjawan recalls.
It shakes the yellow leaves from the bough of your heart,
so that fresh, green leaves can grow in their place.
It pulls up the rotten roots,
so that new roots hidden beneath have room to grow.
We cannot understand if we do not first learn the language and grasp the symbols in which it is written.
You sink your voice, but I can distinguish the tones when they would be lost on others.
— Jane Austin, Persuasion
This post aims to summarize two recent important changes to Toaq’s phonology.
The purpose of this post is to document and summarize a recent change to Toaq’s variable binding syntax. This summary will only cover the new system rather than make a comparison between old and new. The old system is still documented at http://toaq.org/#quantifiers for now.
In this very thing, which the dialecticians teach among the elements of their art, how one ought to judge the truth or falsehood of a hypothetical judgement like “If day has dawned, it is light”, how great a contest there is; Diodorus has one opinion, Philo another, Chrysippus a third.
— Cicero, 45 BC, complaining about conditionals
In this article, I set out to show how to interpret adjectives and why ru is a bad default for non-subordinating serial predicates.
Before we begin, in order to avoid confusion, it should be noted that when the term adjective is used throughout this article, it refers to predicates that are used in some way to modify other predicates. Toaq does not have adjectives as a separate part of speech, but it is a useful term to refer to the left part in a modifier-modified pair of predicates. With that said, we can begin our journey towards a better understanding of the logic of adjectives.
Today, we will be talking about focus and how it works in Toaq. In basic terms, focus is the part of a sentence that contains new or contrasting information. When you know that someone ate your last remaining banana, but not who did it, and I say to you “ I ate the banana” (or “It was me who ate the banana”), the fact that someone ate the banana is known information, and the fact that it was me as opposed to someone else who did the eating is the new information and carries what is called the focus of the sentence (signified by an underline throughout this article).